Noun-Modifier Questions (State of the art)

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  • multiple-choice noun-modifier questions
  • 2,180 seven-choice questions for evaluating noun-modifier composition models
  • questions derived from WordNet
  • split into 680 questions for training (e.g., development, parameter tuning) and 1,500 questions for testing
  • introduced in Turney (2012)

Sample question

Stem: coin collector
Choices: (a) numismatist
(b) coin
(c) collector
(d) coinage
(e) aggregator
(f) reflectiveness
(g) plasma
Solution: (a) numismatist

Table of results

Algorithm Reference for algorithm Reference for experiment Correct - 7-choices Correct - 14-choices
Vector addition Landauer and Dumais (1997) Turney (2012) 50.1 22.5
Element-wise multiplication 57.5 27.4
Dual-Space model 58.3 41.5
SuperSim 75.9 68.0
Holistic model 81.6 NA


Turney, P.D. (2012). Domain and function: A dual-space model of semantic relations and compositions, Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR), 44, 533-585.

Turney, P.D. (2013), Distributional semantics beyond words: Supervised learning of analogy and paraphrase, Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics (TACL), 1, 353-366.