Noun-Modifier Questions (State of the art)

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Sample question

Stem: coin collector
Choices: (a) numismatist
(b) coin
(c) collector
(d) coinage
(e) aggregator
(f) reflectiveness
(g) plasma
Solution: (a) numismatist

Table of results

Algorithm Reference for algorithm Reference for experiment Correct - 7-choices Correct - 14-choices
Vector addition Landauer and Dumais (1997) Turney (2012) 50.1 22.5
Element-wise multiplication Mitchell and Lapata (2008) Turney (2012) 57.5 27.4
Dual-Space model Turney (2012) Turney (2012) 58.3 41.5
SuperSim Turney (2013) Turney (2013) 75.9 68.0
Holistic model Turney (2012) Turney (2012) 81.6 NA


Landauer, T.K., and Dumais, S.T. (1997). A solution to Plato's problem: The latent semantic analysis theory of the acquisition, induction, and representation of knowledge. Psychological Review, 104(2):211-240.

Mitchell, J., and Lapata, M. (2008). Vector-based models of semantic composition. In Proceedings of ACL-08: HLT, pages 236-244, Columbus, Ohio. Association for Computational Linguistics.

Turney, P.D. (2012). Domain and function: A dual-space model of semantic relations and compositions, Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR), 44, 533-585.

Turney, P.D. (2013), Distributional semantics beyond words: Supervised learning of analogy and paraphrase, Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics (TACL), 1, 353-366.