Noun-Modifier Semantic Relations (State of the art)

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  • 600 noun-modifier pairs labeled with 30 classes of semantic relations
  • 30 classes organized into 5 superclasses
  • introduced in Nastase and Szpakowicz (2003)
  • subsequently used by many other researchers
  • data available from UT Repository
  • information about data available from Vivi Nastase and Nastase and Szpakowicz (2003)

Five superclasses

  • Causality: "cold virus", "onion tear"
  • Temporality: "morning frost", "summer travel"
  • Spatial: "aquatic mammal", "west coast", "home remedy"
  • Participant: "dream analysis", "mail sorter", "blood donor"
  • Quality: "copper coin", "rice paper", "picture book"

Table of results

Algorithm Reference 5-class F-measure 5-class accuracy
VSM Turney and Littman (2005) 43.2% 45.7%
SVM+28 Nulty (2007) NA 50.1%
PERT Turney (2006a) 50.2% 54.0%
TiMBL+WordNet Nastase et al. (2006) 51.5% NA
LRA Turney (2006b) 54.6% 58.0%

Explanation of table

  • Algorithm = name of algorithm
  • Reference = where to find out more about given algorithm and experiments
  • 5-class F-measure = macroaveraged F-measure for the 5 superclasses
  • 5-class accuracy = accuracy for the 5 superclasses
  • table rows sorted in order of increasing performance
  • VSM = Vector Space Model
  • LRA = Latent Relational Analysis
  • PERT = Pertinence
  • TiMBL+WordNet = Tilburg Memory Based Learner + WordNet-based representation with word sense information
  • SVM+28 = Support Vector Machine + all 28 joining terms


Nastase, Vivi and Stan Szpakowicz. (2003). Exploring noun-modifier semantic relations. In Fifth International Workshop on Computational Semantics (IWCS-5), pages 285–301, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

Nastase, Vivi, Jelber Sayyad Shirabad, Marina Sokolova, and Stan Szpakowicz. (2006). Learning noun-modifier semantic relations with corpus-based and Wordnet-based features. In Proceedings of the 21st National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-06), pages 781-787. Boston, Massachusetts.

Nulty, Paul. (2007). Semantic classification of noun phrases using web counts and learning algorithms. In Proceedings of the ACL 2007 Student Research Workshop (ACL-07), pages 79-84. Prague, Czech Republic.

Turney, Peter D. (2005). Measuring semantic similarity by latent relational analysis. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-05), pages 1136–1141, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Turney, Peter D. and Michael L. Littman. (2005). Corpus-based learning of analogies and semantic relations. Machine Learning, 60(1–3):251–278.

Turney, P.D. (2006a). Expressing implicit semantic relations without supervision. In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Coling/ACL-06), Sydney, Australia, pp. 313-320.

Turney, P.D. (2006b). Similarity of semantic relations. Computational Linguistics, 32 (3), 379-416.

See also