NLG publications list

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If you would like to add your own refereed and NLG-related publications, please go ahead - use the "Edit" link above to do it yourself.

(Correct any broken links if you can - Thanks!)


  • John Bateman and Michael Zock's list of NLG systems and associated references has now moved to the NLG Systems Wiki.
  • John Bateman's Bibliography site [1] contains a superset of the references used in the above list of NLG systems, including references for all aspects of NLG. Particular sub-bibliographies can be generated on demand. There are over 3000 entries concerning NLG and updates are welcome. The bibliography is maintained in BibTeX and is linked to/maintained at the Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies with its extensive cross-linking and search facilities.
  • A 1993 bibliography of ~1200 entries provided by Mark Kantrowitz On-line searchable version (ps.gz 126K, 49 pages, dvi.gz 109K, BIBTEX source bib.gz 72K) Mark Kantrowitz, "Bibliography of Research in Natural Language Generation", Techical Report CMU-CS-93-216, Carnegie Mellon University, November 1993.
  • A 1990 annotated bibliography provided by Robert Dale, 27 pages ( ps.gz 70K, RefList.tex.gz LaTeX source tex.gz 70K)
  • A 1993 revision of Dale's bibliography, 50 pages (ps.gz 100K)
  • Aggeliki Dimitromanolaki's bibliography on machine learning and natural language generation
  • Piwek, P. (2003). An Annotated Bibliography of Affective Natural Language Generation. version 1.3 (version 1.0 appeared in 2002 as ITRI Technical Report ITRI-02-02, University of Brighton). pdf
  • Piwek, P. and K. van Deemter (2006). Constraint-based Natural Language Generation: A Survey. Technical Report 2006/03, Computing Department, The Open University. pdf bib


  • Dale & Reiter's ANLP-97 Tutorial on Building Applied Natural Language Generation Systems. (PPT7) (PPT4) (Postscript)
  • Emiel Krahmer and Paul Piwek. Natural Language Generation for Embodied Agents. At the 7th European Agent Systems Summer School (EASSS) (July 2005, Utrecht). course material


  • Charles Callaway, Narrative Prose Generation, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, North Carolina State University, April 2000. web page
  • Giuseppe Carenini, Generating and Evaluating Evaluative Arguments, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Pittsburgh, 2000. web page
  • Hercules Dalianis, Concise Natural Language Generation from Formal Specifications, Ph.D. Thesis, (Teknologie Doktorsavhandling), Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm University, June 1996, Report Series No. 96-008, ISSN 1101-8526, SRN SU-KTH/DSV/R--96/8--SE. Abstract
  • Michael Elhadad, Using argumentation to control lexical choice: a unification-based implementation, PhD thesis, Columbia University, Dept of Computer Science, 1993, ps gzipped (575K).
  • Pablo Duboue, Indirect Supervised Learning of Strategic Generation Logic, PhD thesis, Columbia University, Dept of Computer Science, 2005, deposit PDF single page PDF HTML
  • Blake Lemoine, NLGen2: A Linguistically Plausible, General Purpose Natural Language Generation System, August 2009, Center for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Louisiana, Lafayette. Excerpt from Master's thesis.
  • Maria Milosavljevic. The Automatic Generation of Comparisons in Descriptions of Entities. PhD Thesis. Department of Computing, Macquarie University. February 1999. pdf, ps.gz
  • Jacques Robin, Revision-based generation of natural language summaries providing historical background: corpus-based analysis, design, implementation and evaluation, PhD thesis, Columbia University, Dept of Computer Science, 1994, ps gzipped (762K).
  • Manfred Stede, Lexical semantics and knowledge representation in multilingual sentence generation, PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, 1996, Technical report CSRI-347, Abstract, ps gz (384K), ps gz Toronto, ps Toronto (1292K).
  • Mariet Theune, From data to speech: language generation in context, PhD thesis, University of Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 2000. pdf

Natural Language Generation Workshops

'Note': Proceedings of many NLG workshops are available at the ACL Anthology

  • SIGGEN contains proceedings of INLG 1990, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000
  • workshops05 contains proceedings of ENLG 2005
  • workshops06 contains proceedings of INLG 2006

1992 International NLGW

  • Michael Elhadad and Jacques Robin, Controlling Content Realization with Functional Unification Grammars, in Aspects of Automated Natural Language Generation; R. Dale, E. Hovy, D. Rosner and O. Stock editors, 89-104, Springer Verlag, 1992. (16 pages: 53K ps gz, 62K dvi)

1994 International NLGW

  • Beryl Hoffman, Generating Context-Appropriate Word Orders in Turkish, Abstract, cmp-lg, ps gz (53K)
  • Franck Panaget, Using a textual representational level component in the context of discourse or dialog generation, ps gz (10 pages, 57K)
  • E. Reiter, Has a Consensus NLG Architecture Appeared, and is it Psycholinguistically Plausible?, Abstract, cmp-lg, ps gz (56K)
  • R. Michael Young and Johanna D. Moore, DPOCL: A Principled Approach to Discourse Planning, Abstract, 8 pages, cmp-lg, ps gz (52K)

1995 European NLGW

1996 International NLGW (Brighton)


  • Stephan Busemann, Best-First Surface Realization, Abstract, 10 pages, 60K, cmp-lg, ps gz
  • H. Dalianis and E, Hovy, On Lexical Aggregation and Ordering (Demo), ps gz (14K) or alternate
  • Michael Elhadad & Jacques Robin (Demo) An Overview of SURGE: A reusable comprehensive syntactic realization component (10 pages, 55K dvi, ps gz)
  • Dilek Zeynep Hakkani, Kemal Oflazer and Ilyas Cicekli, Tactical Generation in a Free Constituent Order Language, Abstract, 10 pages, 57K, cmp-lg, ps gz
  • Keith Vander Linden and Barbara Di Eugenio, Learning Micro-Planning Rules for Preventative Expressions, Abstract, 8 pages, 95K, ps gz, cmp-lg

UCNLG 2005

Anja Belz and Sebastian Varges (eds). Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics 2005Workshop on Using Corpora for Natural Language Generation. Available individually or as a single PDF file.

INLG'06 Special Session on Sharing Data and Comparative Evaluation

See Sharing data and evaluation (NLG).

MOG 2007

Ielka van der Sluis, Mariët Theune, Ehud Reiter & Emiel Krahmer (eds). Proceedings of the Workshop on Multimodal Output Generation (MOG 2007). 25-26 January 2007, Aberdeen, Scotland. PDF.

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