Generation grammars

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This page lists sets of generation grammars that can be used for natural language generation tasks when applied to an appropriate NLG system.

FUF/SURGE surface generation grammars

SURGE, SURG-SP, and SURG-IT are the Systemic Unification Reusable Grammars for English, Spanish and Italian, repectively. See also more information on FUF and SURGE, and older versions.

KPML generation grammars

Generation grammars for the following language are available for the KPML generation system [1]:

Resource sets also include examples containing semantic specifications for input.

A full list of available grammars can be found in the generation bank.


OpenCCG, free a parser/realizer for Combinatory Categorial Grammar, is distributed with several sample grammars, which are bidirectional. They include pretty large grammars for Classical Arabic and English, and small grammars for Basque, Dyirbal, English, Inuit, Nez Percé, Tagalog and Turkish.


HPSG grammars are reversible in theory. In practice however, some of them are geared towards parsing only. Bidirectional HPSG grammars and grammar engineering environments are available via the DELPH-IN website and wiki.


What has been said about HPSG by and large also applies for LFG. Unfortunately, LFG grammars and grammar engineering environments tend to be proprietary and non-free.


GF, Grammatical Framework is a programming language for multilingual grammar development. GF grammars are reversible, but written in a generation-oriented way. The GF resource grammar library has support for nearly 30 languages.

Siggen-logo.gif This page was imported semi-automatically from the NLG Resources Wiki which was run by ACL SIGGEN in the years 2005–2009. Please correct conversion errors and help update its contents.

Now this page is associated with the Natural Language Generation Portal.